Sunday, 22 March 2015

Rwandan Genocide, The Road To Biafra, Rwandan Experience


by  mamamba mamamba

The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority. During the approximate 100-day period from April 7, 1994 to mid-July, an estimated 800,000–1,000,000 Rwandans were killed, constituting as much as 20% of the country’s total population and 70% of the Tutsi then living in Rwanda. The genocide was planned by members of the core political elite known as the akazu, many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government. Perpetrators came from the ranks of the Rwandan army, the National Police (gendarmerie), government-backed militias including the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi, and the Hutu civilian population.

The genocide took place in the context of the Rwandan Civil War,conflict beginning in 1990 between the Hutu-led government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which was largely composed of Tutsi refugees whose families had fled to Uganda following earlier waves of Hutu violence against the Tutsi. International pressure on the Hutu-led government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993 with a roadmap to implement the Arusha Accords that would create a power-sharing government with the RPF. This agreement displeased many conservative Hutu, including members of the Akazu, who viewed it as conceding to enemy demands. Among the broader Hutu populace, the RPF military campaign had also intensified support for the so-called “Hutu Power” ideology, which portrayed the RPF as an alien force intent on reinstating the Tutsi monarchy and enslaving the Hutus, a prospect met with extreme opposition.

On April 6, 1994, an airplane carrying Habyarimana and Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down on its descent into Kigali, killing all on board. Genocidal killings began the following day: soldiers, police and militia quickly executed key Tutsi and moderate Hutu leaders, then erected checkpoints and barricades and used Rwandans’ national identity cards to systematically verify their ethnicity and kill Tutsi. These forces recruited or pressured Hutu civilians to arm themselves with machetes, clubs, blunt objects and other weapons to rape, maim and kill their Tutsi neighbors and destroy or steal their property. The breach of the peace agreement led the RPF to restart their offensive and rapidly seize control of the northern part of the country before capturing Kigali in mid-July, bringing an end to the genocide. During these events and in their aftermath, the United Nations (UN) and countries including the United States, Great Britain and Belgium were criticized for their inaction, including failure to strengthen the force and mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) peacekeepers, while observers criticized the government of France for alleged support of the genocidal regime after the genocide had begun

It is on this premise that I have decided to bring the ticking time bomb in the South East before Nigerians. The present state of the region is a clear manifestation of man’s inhumanity to man .
The bitter truth is that of a zone systematically neglected and wickedly destroyed for reasons that are ingloriously archaic, incurable hatred and misplaced fears by the ruling class, self imposed marginalization of their own ruling class on their embattled and gullible populace; I have to here chronicle the known facts that Igbo can forgive but can never forget , yes reasons for the time bomb.

1. Jos, June 22, 1945 – Over 200 people were massacred in Jos, and their property looted. The colonial authorities failed to institute a probe, and no justice was obtained for the victims.
2. Kano 1953 – over 150 killed following the political riots in protest of the so-called treatment of Northern political leaders in Ibadan .
3.Between May and October 1966 – over 50, 000 Igbo were killed in an organized pogrom following the Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna-led coup of Jan.15, 1966. In July a counter coup was staged in which the Igbo General Ironsi was killed in Ibadan with his host, Col. Francis A Fajuyi. Ironsi’s murder did not stem the massacres, but it was intensified from September 1966 .
From July 1967- January 1970 over 3 million Igbos were killed fighting for liberation in Biafra . The International press reported acts of genocide against the Igbo in places like Asaba which were generally ignored. 3)3 million Biafran civilians ,mainly children died mainly from starvation as a result of the federal blockade and mass starvation policy.
3. Kano 1980 – over 1000 Igbos were killed
4. Maiduguiri 1982 – 1983 over 500 Igbos were killed
5. At the beginning of 2001, the Islamic Sharia law was implemented in Kaduna State and a particular incident in 2002 saw at least more than 1,000 Southerners killed in a particular riot and most of those killed were Igbos. Among those murdered were parents of Victor Moses (Austin and Josephine Moses), current member of Nigeria’s national soccer team that won the continental trophy in 2013
6. Between February 16 – December 26, 2002 thousands of Igbo were killed in northern Nigeria and the root cause of the killing and riot was the implementation of Sharia law in the northern states of Nigeria . Among those killed were three Igbo Christian pastors including George Orji who was killed by beheading.
7. In November 2002, hundreds of Igbo were massacred again following controversy around the hosting of Miss World beauty contest in Nigeria
8. The APO-SIX killings occurred in June, 2005 in which the Nigeria Police Force extra-judicially killed six young Igbos (Ekene Isaac Mgbe, Ifeanyi Ozor, Chinedu Meniru, Paulinus Ogbonna, Anthony and Augustina Arebu) in Apo-Abuja. Till this day none of the police officers accused of this shockingly evil crime has been brought to justice.
9. On 18th of February 2006 in Maiduguri and in almost all the northern states of Nigeria , the Muslims protesting over the publication of the cartoon of Prophet Muhammad by a Danish newspaper killed more than 100 Igbo. The Muslims attacked Christians and burned churches in the deadliest confrontation yet in the whirlwind of Muslim anger over the drawings.
10. From March 2006 to July 2007, hundreds of Southerners were killed in almost all the northern states of Nigeria especially in Jos. The crisis was between Muslims and Christians.
11. On October 8, 2007, another religious violence again broke out in Northern Nigeria in a row over the publication of the cartoon of Prophet Muhammad by a Danish newspaper and over 100 of people were massacred, majority of them Igbos.
12. Between March 11, 2010 and September 1, 2011 over 500 Christians were massacred outside Plateau state capital, Jos. This time the killings took place in a mainly Christian village of Barkin Ladi Local Government Area of Plateau state.
13. On 24th April 2011, more than 1,000 were killed in post-election violence in Nigeria and among those killed were Obinna Okpokiri, who returned from London to serve his fatherland and was posted to Bauchi State, and Eucharia Remmy a graduate from the University of Nigeria in 2010, serving in Damaturu, Yobe State. Muslim youths launched protests in northern towns and cities after President Goodluck Jonathan, a Christian from Biafra, was declared the winner of the 16 April election, defeating northern Muslim Muhammadu Buhari, a former military ruler.
14. On June 16, 2011, a Boko haram suicide bomber drove a car bomb onto the premises of the Louis Edet House in Abuja , the headquarters of the Nigeria Police Force with a possible intention to kill Inspector-General of Police Hafiz Ringim whose convoy he followed into the compound. He was however limited by the concentration of security personnel within the entrance. The bomber and one Igbo traffic policeman were killed, though authorities said up to six people may have been killed
15. On 26 August 2011, the Islamist group, Boko Haram claimed responsibility for an attack on the United Nations building in Abuja which left over 40 people dead most of them Igbo
16. On September 25, 2011, five Igbo traders were shot dead at Madala Market, outskirts of Abuja on ThursdayNight between 7-8pm. According to the report, the gunmen stormed the Madala market and made straight to a shop believed to be that of some Igbo traders and ordered them to recite the Holy Quran which they could not do. The gunmen who were not satisfied with the development opened fire on the five people at close range leaving them dead immediately. The five casualties were later identified as John Kalu, Oliver Ezemah, Uche Nguweze, Sunday Emmanuel. The fifth casualty is yet to be identified
17. On December 25, 2011 Boko Haram claimed responsibility for Christmas Day Bomb attacks at St. Theresa’s Catholic Church in Madala – near the capital Abuja – which left more than 50 Igbos dead. Mr Dike and his children were roasted alive
18. On January 5, 2012 more than 43 Igbos and other southerners were killed in Adamawa State north-eastern Nigeria . The first victims, 16 in all, were murdered on Friday night during a service at the Christ Apostolic Church , Yola, the state capital. Twenty-seven others described as mourners had been killed earlier on that day at Mubi by gunmen while they were meeting at the residence of another Igbo man who had been shot dead by Bokko Haram Islamist terrorist group a day earlier to plan for his burial
19. On January 11, 2012 Boko Haram terrorists shot dead four Igbo men who were believed to be fleeing violence-torn Maiduguri, residents said.” Their car had just pulled up at a filling station outside the town to refuel when suspected Boko Haram gunmen in another car also pulled up and opened fire on the Igbos, killing them on the spot.”
20. On Monday Jan 16, 2012 members of the Boko Haram terrorist group again shot dead five Southerners in their homes in Maiduguri. Three people among those shot dead have been confirmed as Igbos.
21. On 21st January 2012 at 2:55 GMT, more than 250 Southerners were killed in a series of bombings and attacks by Islamist zealots in the northern Nigerian city of Kano. The terrorist group, Boko Haram, claimed responsibility for the attacks.
22. On 16 March 2012, Mr John Nubrim was visibly traumatized after fleeing the north-eastern town of Maiduguri following attacks by the terrorist group, Boko Haram. According to him, “Only God knows how I escaped from that Maiduguri. They bomb over there.” “They burned my shed. All my property, all my things, are there,” said the young electronics trader, before letting out a short scream. “My parents, my brother and one of my sons died there.”
23. On February 3, 2012, men of the terrorist group, Boko Haram, struck early in the morning in Ajaokuta, Kogi State, killing four southerners. A police station and a first generation bank were burnt by the group. In another incident, at least six Igbo were killed in Maiduguri by the same Boko Haram.
24. On August 8, 2012, Boko Haram terrorists attacked a church in Okene, Kogi State with guns killing so many Igbos. On the same day, an IED was discovered in another church in Lokoja, Kogi state which exploded and killed more than 20 Igbo.
25. On Monday 19th March 2013, the whole world woke up to the sad news about the explosion of five luxurious buses by Boko Haram at Sabo-Ngari area in Kano State Nigeria, killing over 250 southerners and maiming several others, mostly Igbos.
26. On Friday May 24, 2013 at about 7:30pm. Kano Police Command Public Relations Officer, ASP Magaji Majiya confirmed to 247ureports.comthat unknown gunmen believed to be Boko Haram terrorist group struck the Kurna Asabe area of Kano and shot dead two Igbo business men- a Vulcanizer and an Electronics dealer. Both victims hailed from Nsukka, Enugu State and were identified as Ibe Ugwuanyi, 30 (Vulcanizer) and Eke Osita Joseph, an Electronics dealer, 35.
27. A dark cloud of mourning enveloped the Ezihe-Umueze kindred in Uga community, Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State, as the people awaited the return of their kinsman, Mr Nnamdi Ezebuala whose three children were killed in the latest Boko Haram bombing incident that occurred on July 29, 2013 in Sabongari, Kano. This very man eventually died from wounds he sustained from the bombs which killed his three children. They were all buried the same day; four of them.
28. On September 2, 2013 gunmen on the rampage swept through three states of Borno, Kaduna and Plateau in Northern Nigeria killing more than 50 Biafrans.
29. On September 3, 2013 more than five Christians were forced from their vehicle in Jos and executed in a ditch in the latest attack by Boko Haram terrorist group. It was reported that these five individuals were executed by the terrorist group after declaring themselves followers of Jesus Christ.
30. Abuja, Fri Sep 20, 2013 12:32pm EDT (Reuters) – At least seven southerners were killed by the terrorist group Boko Haram in the capital Abuja .
31. On 28th September 2013, Boko Haram terrorists bombed three banks and killed 4 in Kaduna . Heavily armed Boko Haram terrorist members bombed three commercial banks in Saminaka, headquarters of Lere local government area of Kaduna State and four lives were lost in the attack.
32. Early in 2013, hundreds of people of Igbo extraction were physically deported from Lagos by the Lagos State Governor and dumped at the Niger Bridge-head in Onitsha for no justifiable reason. Which country in the history of the world has ever deported its citizens from one part of the country to another? The only instance that comes to mind is the transportation of Jews by the German SSS to death chambers during the Second World War. The Indigenous People of Biafra has determined that only in the Sovereign State of Biafra will they really be safe and assured of their basic inalienable human rights. Of course, there are those we cannot omit stating in clearer terms:
1. December 18th-20th 1980_ Kano , Kano State_ Islamic Revivalists (Maitatsine group) attacked Christians and burnt churches; over 4,000 Christians were killed and their properties worth millions of naira lost.
2. October 25th-30th 1982_ Kaduna, Kaduna State_ another Maitatsine riot; over 50 Christians estimated dead.
3. October 30th 1982_Kano, Kano State ( Sabon Gari Municipality )_2 Churches burnt to ashes, 6 more destroyed.
4. December 26th-29th 1982_Maiduguri, Borno State, Maitatsine riot: over 100 Christians lost their lives and properties destroyed.
5. February 15th -2nd March 1984_ The Gongola State (Jimeta-Yola) _ The Maitatsine group attacked Christians; over 500 Christians were killed.
6. April 23rd-28th 1985_Then Bauchi State (Gombe)_Maitatsine uprising: more than 100 Christians lost their lives
7. March 6th-12th 1987_ Kaduna State (Kafanchan, Kaduna, Zaria ) & Katsina in Katsina State_ Muslim students attacked Christian students at College of Education in Kafanchan and Christians fought back. The fight later spread to other places as indicated here under location. More than 150 churches were burnt and over 25 Christians killed.
8. March 1988_Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State Government destroyed a Christian Chapel under construction. This led to religious uprising.
9. 1988, Kaduna State ( ABU University Zaria ), Benson Omenka, final year student, killed by Muslim students during Students Union election. Christian students were also stoned, maimed and raped.
10. 1988_Bauchi State, Gombe in Bauchi State Secondary Schools, Muslim students attacked Christian Teachers and students in GSS Gombe, GTC Gombe and GSS Bauchi and other Secondary Schools in Bauchi State. Some of the Christian students were badly wounded.
11. April 20th-23rd 1991_Bauchi, Bauchi state: Fighting between Muslims and Christians; more than 200 people lost their lives and 700 churches and mosques were burnt.
12. October 14th-16th 1991_Kano State, Kano: The Reinhard Bonnke riots fighting between Muslims and Christians as Muslim activists rampaged and protested against a planned revival meeting during which a German Evangelist, Reinhard Bonnke, was expected to be the guest preacher.
13. October 1991, Plateau State: A young man from Anaguta was beaten to death on a field opposite University of Jos during election primaries of the defunct Social Democratic Party (SDP).
14. February 1992, Kano State : Many Christians were massacred and churches destroyed.
15. February 1992, Plateau State , Jos. A young Christian, married with one child, was beaten to death by Muslims as he was going home from an evening church meeting, at Yan Taya junction, Jos.
16. April 15th-16th 1992_Kaduna state, Zangon Kataf local Government Area. What was supposed to be a communal riot between Christians and Muslims and spread throughout Kaduna State . Hundreds of people lost their lives and buildings were burnt.
17. May 18th 1992_Kaduna, Zaria: Rev. Tacio Duniya of E.C.W.A, Rev. Musa Bakut and a host of others were murdered by Muslim fanatics.
18. April 12th 1994_Plateau State, Jos. Fighting between Muslims and Christians over the appointment of one Aminu Mato as chairman of the Caretaker Committee for Jos Local Government Area. 16 lives were lost and properties were destroyed.
19. 1999, Borno State . Religious riots as Borno State government mooted the idea of not allowing the teaching of Christian Religious Knowledge in Schools.
20. February 4th -22nd 2000_Kaduna State. Riots began after a Christian march opposing the implementation of Sharia law. Travelers were killed as they tried to escape from their vehicles. More than 1,000 people died in various clashes.
21. February. & May 2000_Kaduna State, Kaduna Christians in Kaduna were attacked on two different occasions as Muslim fanatics protested against the delay in introduction of sharia in the state.
22. May 16th 2000_Kaduna_ Muslim youths destroyed ECWA in Kaduna only hours after peacekeeping troops left the area.
23. May 22nd 2000_Kaduna state_ Muslim youths torched the First Baptist Church and Christian homes, leading to retaliation by Christian youths. At least 11 people died and many others were injured in the incident.
24. May 25th 2000_Kaduna state. Several days of violence over the introduction of Sharia led to the death of at least 150 people. Homes, shops and churches were also destroyed.
25. September 7th-9th, 2000, Gombe State . In Bambam, 25 people died as a result of clashes between Muslims and Christians due to possible implementation of Sharia. Property damaged was estimated in millions of Naira.
26. November 2000_ Kebbi State, Christians showing the Jesus film were warned not to continue showing the film.
27. June 2001_Jigawa State_15 churches and 14 Pastors’ residences were burned down in Gawaram. A similar attack on 11 churches occurred earlier in that year in Hadejia.
28. 5th August 2001, Bauchi State: according to the Church of Christ in Nigeria (COCIN), Muslim mercenaries had attacked Christians in the Tafawa Balewa and Bogoro areas on two occasions. The attacks left more than 100 dead and 3,000 refugees.
29. 7th-12th September 2001_Plateau State, Jos Muslims attacked Christians. Properties were destroyed and people lost their lives.
30. September 7th-17th 2001, Kano State, seven churches were demolished; six churches set ablaze by a mob. Fifty four churches given demolition notices and seventeen churches demolished by the Kano state government. The Governor stated that all churches in Shagari quarters of Kano city were “illegal structures”, probably due to the religious conflict in Jos.
31. October 7th 2001Kaduna State. Muslim youths attacked three churches and 10 Christian-owned shops with gas bombs, setting fire to the buildings.
32. October 14th-18th 2001, Kano State: As a result of Anti-American protests, 600 Christians were missing and another 350 were killed; at least five churches were burned during the resulting riots.
33. December 24th-25th 2001_Gombe State. A visit to Gombe State by the Israeli ambassador sparked a riot, at least 4 people were killed, 50 injured, and two churches damaged.
34. 2nd May 2002_Plateau State, Jos: Muslims attacked Christians. Properties were destroyed and people lost their lives.
35. May 2002_Zamfara State . The whereabouts of two Christians charged with apostasy, converting from Islam to Christianity, was unknown. Lawali Yakubu and Ali Jafaru disappeared after a judge refused to sentence them to death.
36. May-June 2002, Niger State . At least 75 Christians were arrested for opposing the state’s Sharia law.
37. June 6th 2002, Katsina State : A Christian Police Officer in Katsina was clubbed to death by a mob of Muslims after being accused of trampling a Koran. The Police Officer had warned a Muslim preacher to stop inciting violence against Christians. Afraid of being arrested, the preacher fabricated the Koran story to provoke the crowd.
38. September, 2002_Kaduna State, Federal Government College Zaria : Muslim students fought against Christian students discovered that a Christian was likely to win the position of Students Union President during a student election. Many were killed and several female students raped.
39. October 13th 2002_Kaduna, Zaria : A clash over a student election at the Federal College of Education in Zaria ended in the death of 20 Christian students.
40. November 20th-21st 2002_Kaduna State, Kadoka and Kano Muslim mobs ransacked Thisday Newspaper’s Office and then began to attack Christian targets, damaging up to 20 churches. Over 200 people were killed and 1,200 injured in the attacks.
41. December 26th, 2002_Bauchi State : An armed Muslim mob attacked Christians concluding Christmas celebration. The Celestial Church of Christ and many Christian homes were burnt.
42. April 22nd 2003_Kano State: A pastor and 6 of his members were killed in a house fire which was believed to have been set by Muslim militants.
43. December, 2003_Plateau State, Rim: Christians killed, houses and churches destroyed, individuals injured and many other damages.
44. February 2004_Plateau State , Yelwa Shendam_47 Christians burnt in church with a lot of houses and properties destroyed.
45. April 2004_Kano State : Reprisal of Jos crisis: many Christians killed, houses and properties lost.
46. February 18th 2006_Maiduguri_56 churches burnt and 63 Christians killed in an orchestrated attack.
47. September 2006_Jigawa State_26 churches burnt.
48. September 28th 2007_Kano State, Tudun Wada_3 killed, 72 injured, 8 churches burnt.
49. December 2007_Bauchi, Yelwa: Ten Christians killed and 47 injured.
50. May 13th 2008_Bauchi State, Ningi, Tafawa Balewa: Six churches burnt and vandalized.
51. November 28th 2008_Plateau State: Over 100 Christians killed, 71 churches burnt, 1,647 families lost their homes, 535 businesses burnt.
52. December 2008_Sokoto_NCCF (NYSC) bus burnt.
53. February 21st 2009_Bauchi_19 people dead, 12 churches burnt, 50 Christian houses destroyed.
54. 29th July 2009_Borno, Bauchi and Adamawa States: A group called Boko Haram killed Christians who refused to accept Islam, burnt their churches and attacked security operatives.
55. 27th December 2009_Plateau State : Muslims burnt Baptist Church at Yelwa and stabbed some Christians on the streets of Jos.
56. 29th December 2009_Bauchi_A group called Kalikato attacked people in Bauchi, leaving 39 people dead and houses burnt.
57. 17th 21 January 2010_Plateau State: Muslims unleash destruction over 24 communities in Jos North, Jos South, Barkin ladi, Mangu, Pankshin and Dangi, claiming numerous lives and burning Christian homes and Churches including Bukuru Market.
58. 20th January 2010, Sokoto state: A Christian man was killed in retaliation over the incidence in Jos.
59. 22nd January 2010, Kaduna Sate: Muslims attack Christians at Mararraban Rido (close to NNPC depot).
60. 28th January-1st February 2010 Gombe State: Muslims burnt ECWA primary and secondary schools at Bolori, burnt houses belonging to Igbos at Duku, burnt Yoruba Hall at Jekadafari and also burnt two churches with one vandalized.
61. Since 2010 BOKO HARAM Terrorist groups, Islamic Jihadists, Shariarist and moslem terrorist have killed hundreds and thousands of Igbos, Christians and southerners in Northern and Central Nigeria by bombing, attacks, burning of Igbos properties, Christians churches and southern people living in Northern Nigeria by bombing their churches, businesses, schools, homes, markets and at out doors activities.


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